"One day you will use some of the grammar and vocabulary from this activity in your everyday conversation too! But you need to try it in class first!"

Linda still needs to decide on the teaching framework that she would like to use during the class before the FSW activity. Perhaps she will choose to present the language first through a written text. She then might decide to provide some simple controlled practice of the phonological features, conceptual meaning and/or form of this piece of language. The third activity would be the FSW task to give students even more practice.

Or Linda may choose an entirely different framework. It is totally up to her. However, Linda helped her students even more by providing expectational knowledge of the FSW task prior to them attending the class. Moreover, she might choose to recycle the activity with a different class in the future.

The example above is a simple response to our intuitive understanding of how expectational knowledge prior to the event can only help students succeed during a task or activity. However, preparation involves more than just this kind of knowledge. Let's now consider the following situation.

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