Academic Reading ---> List of Headings  ---> Task #27 Explanation

Task #27: Explanation
IELTS Academic Reading
Do not start by reading the entire passage. Instead, start with the task and use reading strategies to quickly match headings to paragraphs. You will encounter examples later in this module.
List of Headings

i. Determining the roles of the planner. Answer: Paragraph A
ii. Environmental effects of transport planning
iii. The stages of the planning process

Paragraph A

Transport planning can be tricky, especially when there is a limited budget for transport planners and organizations. Transport project developers have different responsibilities and duties that must be performed in order to do their jobs well. This includes taking into account various factors such as the the social and environmental contexts of their work. They also need to be able to manage projects with multiple people working on them. This can be especially difficult if the planner does not have strong communication skills.

Paragraph B

Having identified the roles of a planner, different planning processes can be discussed. Most planners use something called the rational model of planning. In this model, data is collected, quantified and then analyzed. These three phases of the transport planning process are equally important, but many feel that those who are responsible for managing this process perform poorly in the initial stage of pre-analysis.


In the question above, we use knowledge of the reference in the present participle clause at the beginning of Paragraph B to confirm the answer to Heading i.

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